膝关节的局部解析图(膝盖骨骼和软组织的解剖结构图解)-氨糖品牌网

膝关节的局部解析图(膝盖骨骼和软组织的解剖结构图解)

舒老师 文章编号:-10010 2024-06-17

Introduction

The knee joint is one of the largest and most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the femur, tibia, and patella bones. The complex structure of the knee joint also includes various soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and muscles. Understanding the anatomy of the knee joint is essential for diagnosing and treating injuries and diseases that affect it.

Bony Anatomy of the Knee Joint

The knee joint is made up of three bones: the femur, tibia, and patella. The femur, or thigh bone, is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It forms the upper part of the knee joint and is connected to the tibia, or shinbone, via the medial and lateral femoral condyles. The patella, or kneecap, is located in front of the knee joint and protects the joint from impacts.

Articular Cartilage

Articular cartilage is a smooth, slippery tissue that covers the surfaces of the bones within the knee joint. It serves as a shock absorber and allows the bones to move smoothly against each other. The articular cartilage in the knee joint is thickest in the central portion of the femoral condyles and thinnest near the edges of the tibial plateau.

Muscles and Tendons

The muscles that move the knee joint include the quadriceps, hamstrings, and calf muscles. The quadriceps are a group of four muscles located on the front of the thigh that work together to extend the knee joint. The hamstrings are a group of three muscles located on the back of the thigh that work together to flex the knee joint. The calf muscles, including the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, work to stabilize the knee joint during weight-bearing activities.

The tendons that attach the muscles to the bones are also important structures in the knee joint. The quadriceps tendon connects the quadriceps muscle to the patella, while the patellar tendon connects the patella to the tibia. The hamstring tendons attach the hamstrings to the tibia and fibula bones.

Ligaments

The knee joint is stabilized by four main ligaments: the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). The ACL and PCL are located within the joint capsule and cross each other to form an "X." They prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The MCL and LCL are located on the outer edges of the knee joint and help to prevent excessive side-to-side movement of the knee joint.

膝关节的局部解析图(膝盖骨骼和软组织的解剖结构图解)

Menisci

The knee joint also contains two C-shaped pieces of fibrocartilage called menisci. They are located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateau and act as shock absorbers and stabilizers for the knee joint. The medial meniscus is located on the inner side of the knee, while the lateral meniscus is located on the outer side.

Conclusion

Understanding the anatomy of the knee joint is essential for preventing and treating injuries and diseases that affect it. From the bone structure to the soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and muscles, every structure plays an essential role in the stability and movement of the knee joint.

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